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Tanzania occupies 151st place (2014) in the ranking of the Human Development Index (HDI), conducted by the UNDP, which annually monitors the socio-economic development of countries in the world.

Tanzania has the lowest net enrolment ratio of the East African partners, which in 2013 was less than 81% (source). Additionally, in terms of access to education, there are significant differences between rural and urban areas. For example, according to data from 2010, 3% of school-age children from urban areas and 15% from rural areas have never attended school. Primary school was completed by 63% of children from rural areas compared to 85% of pupils from cities. The inequalities are even more noticeable in terms of the economic status – primary school is completed by 47% of the poorest pupils and 91% of the richest (source).

From the point of view of the priority of environmental protection, the key challenge for Tanzania is to protect biodiversity while striving to further improve the socio-economic development of the country. More sustainable management of natural resources requires, among others, actions aimed at the protection of water resources or improvement in the access to renewable energy sources. In Tanzania, only 8.3% of the population living in rural areas has access to improved sanitation facilities (source). It is also worth noting the fact of a very low share of the population having access to electricity – in 2012 this percentage was 15.3% (source).

Tanzanian economy is based on agriculture, which employs the majority of people working in the economy. The agricultural sector is characterised by a low level of modernisation, lack of infrastructure and low productivity. The poorest and the most excluded regions of the country are purely agricultural. Improvement of the condition of the agricultural sector and its productivity would thus allow reducing the differences existing between the regions of the country (source). In line with the economic strategy of the Tanzanian government, agriculture is the main priority of development and should be the primary driver of growth of its economy. Modern agriculture is to be based on the active participation of the private sector, therefore it is also necessary to strengthen the role of entrepreneurship – among others, by improving the business environment and development of human capital and investing in a skilled labour (source).

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